How A Father Can Avoid Raising An Atheist Son

I learned recently how many renown atheists had poor relationships with their fathers (I would venture to say that 95% of atheists have had poor relationships with their dads). This is indicative of the “Father Wound” that so many children take on early in life. Our concepts of God are formed from the type of father that we have. An aloof, harsh, disconnected, obnoxious (even religious) dad has produced far more atheists than any “evil God” argument, or “fairy-tale Bible” argument, or a “bad church experience” argument has ever thought about producing. Check out the de-conversion blog for more “arguments”. But what they will never tell you is that “My father wounded me deeply and I’ve never been able to get over it.” De-converting and rejecting belief in God is my way of getting back.

Fatherlessness is the most harmful demographic trend of this generation. Many of our social problems can be traced to fatherlessness – to dads who refuse to be dads. Newsweek ran a cover story about “The Boy Crisis”. The author said, “A boy without a father figure is like an explorer without a map (Eldredge, Way of the Wild Heart…xii).” So many boys are pretty much on their own. “Figure life out yourself and good luck.”

God recognizes the stupidity of such an approach. Even Jesus needed to know that His Father loved him and was going to guide Him. Two of the most prominent occasions where God speaks in the New Testament occur when He is blessing His Son, Jesus.

At his baptism, Jesus comes out of the water and a voice from heaven says,

“Mark 1:9 At that time Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 10 As Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 11 And a voice came from heaven: ‘You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased (NIV)’.”

Then at Jesus’ transfiguration, the voice says again:

Mark 9:7 Then a cloud appeared and enveloped them, and a voice came from the cloud: “This is my Son, whom I love. Listen to him! (NIV).”

Three valuable blessings were bestowed on Jesus from his Daddy (Canfield, They Call Me Dad, 39-40).

First, God communicated belonging. “This is my Son.” We must communicate our acceptance of our sons and our pride in them, no matter what. If there’s something we can’t be proud of, let’s deal with it openly. But they must always have a special place in your heart that no one else will have. Affirm who he is – “You’re mine. I’ll stand up for you and fight your battles with you. I’ll provide for you. The heavenly Father loves his children. He never abandons his own and I will never abandon you.”

Second, God communicates value. God said “Whom I love.” Jesus could live with confidence knowing that God, His Father, loved Him. A quiet confidence exudes from a child who rests in his fathers love. God was so committed to His well-being. “I love being your dad” are words every son needs to hear. The greatest words you’ll ever hear as a Dad are “Dad, I love you.” A boy needs another man to look up to and learn from.

Third, God communicates that Jesus was competent. “Listen to Him.” When we tell our sons, “Great job!” it conveys competence, adequacy – that they have what it takes. A dad is to watch and observe his boy and notice what he’s good at and encourage and affirm that. Admire his work. Affirm what he does.

We must have fathering. You have to give your sons your words. They convey importance, protection, comfort, tenderness, and caring. Many atheist sons have never heard an “I love you” from a dad. Or “I’m proud of you son.” Unaffectionate dads fail to bestow these fatherly blessings and end up creating multiple atheists who are still looking for a father to love them.

Be authentic and real with your sons. If you’re afraid; admit it. If you don’t know; say so. But, whatever you do, stop posing, faking, and wannabeing, and be a real man – love your boy, represent God well, and set your affection on your son.

Dads, make sure the sum total of your relationship with your children is encouragement. The world is tough enough on them as it is. Give them the gift of a nurturing, loving, supportive, present father. Let your son hang out with you. You can’t influence him if you’re never with them. Talk to him about key topics from an early age while you’re doing other stuff. Stay attached no matter what and be nurturing in that attachment. Avoid the “Cat’s in the Cradle” kind of stuff.

Jean Lush adds that the ripe age of 13 is absolutely critical mass between a boy and his dad. Don’t get disconnected, washed out to sea, when everything is on the line. Don’t pretend like you have the answers for everything; just walk with them through the issues.

A godly father is one who participates in the lives of the people in his home. He is active in the rearing of his children. He does not avoid responsibility; he seeks it. He sees his commitment to become responsible as a God-given calling. He provides the financial resources needed for his family. He is the one who makes sure the family is at church where their spiritual needs are ministered to. He is the primary one in the home who talks about God, right and wrong, and leading an honorable life. He leads by example by living out the values he espouses.

Larry Crabb said that what impressed him as a boy was that his father loved something and Someone more than he loved anything else, even his family. But he didn’t feel rejection. He knew he was loved. It was a mystery, an invitation to discover what that Something was all about for his father and for him personally.

What kind of father and father-legacy do you want? Place yourself on the spectrum from “I want to be just like him, he is showing me how” to “Good guy, but not who I want to be” to “Checked out, no clue” to “An evil man. May God deliver me from his legacy.” What are you saying with the message of your life? Accept the fathering challenge and leave a great legacy and avoid raising an atheist.

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34 Comments

Filed under Atheism, Father, God

34 responses to “How A Father Can Avoid Raising An Atheist Son

  1. “I would venture to say that 95% of atheists have had poor relationships with their dads”

    Based on what?

    Do you have polls? Studies? Or did you, perhaps, pull that percentage out of the air?

  2. From personal experience, it’s a load of hoo-ey. I’m an Atheist and my relationship with my father is a pretty darn strong one.

  3. The Tofu

    Where’d you get your statistics for this?

  4. I can see where you want to take this.

    What is so amazing to me is that you would worry more about a statistic or a percentage rather than the warmth of a Father-Son relationship that this post speaks of.

    Don’t you get it?

    The Father-Absence Wound totally screws with life, with values, with family, with spirituality. I meet men, young men and boys who crave a relationship with their dad, and all he can do is piddle around in the garage, sipping his Coors Lite or stay 20 hours a day in his downtown highrise office building in Chicago, and never speak 25 words to the son who longs to know him. And then he wants to talk about God on the weekends! Even I would become an atheist with a dad like that.

    Dads don’t have to be perfect; that’s not what this is about. But it is imperative that they are deeply connected with their boys and young men.

    This is not hard; let’s keep it simple. Just for starters, try this: Know your sons favorite color. Quit reading the damn blog long enough to pay attention to the story he’s telling. Talk about his interest late int the night.

    And you want to worry about a percentage (which by the way comes from my personal experience).

    Unbelievable?

  5. I had a great relationship with my father, I still do. We disagree on religion but only slightly, I would call him a light Christian. My father was the one who pushed me into science which led to my atheism.

    I think your assumption on this matter is wrong. Atheism comes from critical thought, not being fatherless.

  6. Joey, if you want to write about the importance of a father in young boy’s life, that’s great. But you use this as an opportunity, like all your blog posts, to take a cheap and unintelligent shot at atheists. You use atheism like another would use drug dealing.

    No matter how often we try to help you understand what atheism is and why it exists you still claim we don’t believe for emotional reasons. This leads one to believe you are doing this on purpose. Me thinks you write inflammatory posts and tag them with atheism to attract the godless beehive to fulfill your own persecution complex.

  7. “I would venture to say that 95% of atheists have had poor relationships with their dads”

    I would venture to say you just made this up. Stating something is a statistic and then claiming it comes from “personal experience” is at best foolish and at worst dishonest.

    Just for your meticulous statistical records I’m an atheist with an excellent relationship with my Daddy.

  8. My “ventured” percentage is based on personal experience. I am happy that you are within the 5% of margin.

    Actually, I see fatherlessness connected to several things: homosexuality, apathetic men who refuse to lead and love their families, atheism, gang related violence, crime, irresponsibility, etc… My viewpoints stems from tons of reading over the years.

    The fact that I tie it specifically to atheism fits within the purpose of this blog – spiritual questions. One’s relationship with a father will determine much of their view of God and how they see the spiritual life.

    For the record, I have no problems with athiests. My issue is with atheism as a belief system and worldview. In fact, I think atheists have much to offer to any discussion.

    But atheism is a ridiculous, absurd, and untenable position to take in life. How could anyone embrace such a view – many have bought into this hook, line, and sinker. My posts are about revealing how and why Christianity is true. My problem is not with atheists; its with atheism as the ultimate lie. If you become an atheist, you have just destroyed the belief apparatus whereby one can find true meaning in life and answers to life’s deepest questions.

    As one pursues answers in the spiritual life, their view of God will determine everything else about them. Many “Father-Wounded” atheists can testify to the position I hold here.

    It is with sincere compassion that my heart is extended to those who have sustained a father-wound. This reality actually has incredible implications for the person who asserts that they are an atheist.

    My intent is to keep this from happening, for the institution of the family is begining to disintegrate. It will take strong, loving, theistic fathers to build a worldview into their sons and daughters that will position them to live for a story that is larger than they are and that will outlive them.

    If that’s a “persecution complex” I gladly embrace and carry it to the best of my ability.

    And remember…love…true love…

  9. The Tofu

    “What is so amazing to me is that you would worry more about a statistic or a percentage rather than the warmth of a Father-Son relationship that this post speaks of.”

    My problem is that you make up this statistic out of no where and then use it as “evidence” that atheists are screwed up, or that there’s something wrong with us.

    I recognize that the father/son relationship is important (I, for one, have a great relationship with my dad). The fact is that the premise of your post is based entirely on a statistic that is based singularly on anecdotal evidence.

  10. Hi Joey,

    It`s good that you have compassion for people lacking a father figure but you weaken your own position by employing made up, unsupported statistics based on nothing but flimsy anecdotal evidence.

    If you wish to goad atheists please continue. However, if you have a genuine interest in debate and conversation it would be advisable to support any statistics you use with actual evidence.

  11. J. J. Ramsey

    My “ventured” percentage is based on personal experience.

    Oh, come on, that’s the unrepresentative sample fallacy in a nutshell. You should know better than that.

    What is so amazing to me is that you would worry more about a statistic or a percentage rather than the warmth of a Father-Son relationship that this post speaks of.

    What is amazing to me is that you would use a statistic as a major point in your post and not be prepared to defend it.

  12. The Tofu

    “The fact that I tie it specifically to atheism fits within the purpose of this blog – spiritual questions.”

    I thought that the purpose of this blog was to fool yourself into believing that you don’t truly… deep down… believe in the Flying Spaghetti Monster.

  13. mr Joey

    you’ve got to be kidding! No. The worshipping of of an external divinity is not a preriquisite to be a “good” father. Actually it is an inderhance. It is better to teach children that their value comes from within themselves. To love your children as they are, for whom they are, to help them recognize in themselves their own nature, to acknowledge their existence, are far more important “guidance”than asking them to despise themselves, their fellow human beings, and the world.

    Atheism by the way, is a far more coherent approach to reality. I actually feel sorry for religious people for they are missing the point of this existence.

    http://www.ANaturalPhilosophy.com

  14. I love how you criticized Christians who give cliche answers. And here, you blame atheism on the emotional dysfunction caused by an unhappy childhood. I do hope you see the irony.

    >I would venture to say that 95% of atheists have had poor relationships with their dads

    Can I submit this to “fundies say the darndest things?”

  15. This is not cliche and who said anything about a “fundy” – you are being consistent though with most atheists.

    If their logic begins to crack a bit and the evidence tilts to the theist side, usually you can expect a stereotypical label to be paraded out at some point. Label and dismiss because the facts are confusing!

    Been there, done that, Jeffrey. You are above that by the way.

    I am entitled to “venture” a statement. I have not quoted a source or misquoted a source. I have been very forthright in declaring how I have come to this observation.

    If you will investigate this yourself, I believe you will find the percentage to be close to reality. When you talk to an atheist, one-on-one away from the crowd of atheistic expectation, you will find this Father-Wound I speak of.

    Some will rather tritely reply: Sure my dad and I are good. But many dads (not just atheistic), haven’t a clue how to answer the deeper questions of life. Could they know? absolutely. Have they abandoned the search to know? In many cases they have.

    This blog is about recovering some lost answers to life’s deepest questions. I think you’ll find the answers presented here to ring true to a cohesive worldview.

  16. Tofu… everytime you say that, it makes me hungry for my favorite food!

    “I thought that the purpose of this blog was to fool yourself into believing that you don’t truly… deep down… believe in the Flying Spaghetti Monster.”

  17. How and where do you get your statistics from?

    Do you feel bad at all about making them up or taking them from biased sources? I’m just checking, because I would.

    My family was and is a very loving family, and they are very secular. I have seen many similar families as I have gotten to know people.

  18. The Tofu

    “Label and dismiss because the facts are confusing!”

    What’s funny is that the entire point of your original post is to label atheists as coming from dysfunctional families.

    “I am entitled to “venture” a statement. I have not quoted a source or misquoted a source. I have been very forthright in declaring how I have come to this observation.”

    And I’m entitled to point out that your statement is groundless, untrue, and based not on evidence, but on opinion.

    “If you will investigate this yourself, I believe you will find the percentage to be close to reality.”

    Well I haven’t. Sorry. You’ll have to use actual evidence to convince me.

    What about atheistic religions, Joey? Do Buddhists all also have problems with their fathers? What about followers of Confucianism or Shinto?

  19. The Tofu

    Once again, try applying your argument in reverse. If somebody were to say that 95% of Christians had neglectful parents, you would probably demand actual evidence for the statistic.

    Furthermore, you would not be satisfied if the person went on to say “this has been my personal experience, and you will find the same to be true if you actually talk to Christians away from the crowd of Christian expectations.”

    Finally, a person’s relationship with their father has nothing to do with whether their arguments/beliefs are true or not true. You’re attempting to dismiss an argument based on the person making it, rather than on it’s own merits.

    It’s simply not a good argument.

  20. With all due respect to the “Spaghetti Guy” I believe you under-estimate the power of a godly father.

    I’m not necessarily presenting this post as an argument for theism or the veracity of one’s beliefs. What I am doing with this, is linking one’s concept of God or spiritual life viewpoints to, not just their home, put specifically to a father who was apathetic and/or lovingly involved.

    You can’t tell me that an apathetic father who happens to be religious, but unkind and uncaring about his son – that this is not going to have negative influences on that son. this relationship definitely influences what belief system I embrace (even though it doesn’t substantiate that belief system).

    If what you are suggesting is that one’s homelife does not impact ones religious beliefs, then you are getting very close to that “denial” stuff again.

  21. Sunnyskeptic…it wasn’t 100 %. There are some, who despite a great home life, will become atheistic in their worldview. What I suggest is that a father can impact the belief system that a son/daughter will eventually embrace. I don’t have percentages on that one, but check your psychological studies, and you’ll find a plethora of substantiating studies.

    But, define “secular”. That could mean 1,000 things…

    Plus, are you suggesting that parents raise their kids as atheist?!?

  22. pricegutshall

    The reason why people are concerned about your statistic is because it is intended to provide credibility to your bizarre argument.

    Whenever I find religious perspectives of why people are atheists, they tend to be some of the most odd things I’ve ever heard. The reason why anyone is (or should be) an atheist is because they have accepted a worldview that relies on consistent principles founded on a naturalistic approach to experience.

    For the record, another bizarre insight into atheism I’ve read lately suggests that the desire to have sex is the primary reason that people denounce their faith. That is also why atheists support abortion, since sex leads to babies we don’t want.

    What?

  23. The Tofu

    “I’m not necessarily presenting this post as an argument for theism or the veracity of one’s beliefs.”

    The entire first paragraph of your post is a thinly-veiled attempt at writing off atheism as some sort of mental disease brought about from childhood trauma.

    “If what you are suggesting is that one’s homelife does not impact ones religious beliefs, then you are getting very close to that “denial” stuff again.”

    Oh come on. Try reading my posts. I’m taking issue with the fact that you’re insinuating that atheism is somehow a way to deal with neglect.

    Furthermore, you’re backing up this claim with a made up statistic and vague, anecdotal evidence.

    Obviously someone’s family background will have some effect on their beliefs, but atheism is not a product of neglect (perhaps it is in some cases, but by no means 95%), and your “ventured” statements will convince no one until you can back them up with actual evidence.

  24. I went out and talked to quite a few Atheist friends I have and guess what? Yep, all their father relationships were pretty good and continue to be to this day (except in two cases where their fathers had died within the past four years).

    I guess that blows that supposition out of the water.

  25. Define “pretty good”.

    Listen, I am not about lobbing ideological bombs into the atheistic camp and watching the explosion as some suggest I am doing.

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to find good fathers today period. Many theists dads think that they are great dads. But the reality points in another direction.

    Half of even Christian marriages end in divorce. Yes, walking out on a marriage partner is in fact a strike against effective fathering. Loving your kids mother is imperative to being a good dad. But that’s another issue, and I won’t go there because there are special cases where leaving is the only option.

    Anyway. This is not just about “atheist father bashing” at all. It’s a current dilemma across the board. This is about a gigantic appeal to father better than we have before and how to do this.

    Raising a child as an atheist is absurd. You strip away an essential life core. Why in the world would you want to raise a child as an atheist? And/or live in a way that provokes atheism. If your worldview of atheism is right, then it should be taught to your children. Is this what you want?
    Is this really what you want your little girl or son to believe? You’ve espoused a worldview that you can’t live by and if you’re honest, can’t even teach to your children with confidence.

    Now then, there are tons of people who you could talk to, and if they are honest – and are not concerned about proving me wrong – then they will tell you, “Yes, my father-son relationship sustained a wound.” The wound is defined in many ways: neglect, spiritual cluelessness, no direction, selfish ambition, immorality, apathy, lack of communication, abuse, lethargy, etc….

    Children of a godly, loving father can still rebel against his love. And many children can still respond positively to Christian Theism, despite the lovelessness of a father. It’s God’s grace at work.

    But when you grow up with a misdirected father, your ideas about authority in general and God in particular are skewed from an early age. This article is about not skewing the person of God, but presenting Him well to a family who so desperately need the answers to life’s deeper questions that only God can provide.

    Deadbeat fathers have done more for the cause of atheism than anyother thing you could name. It is also currently disintegrating culture on several fronts.

    Atheism is focused on here because it is the ultimate lie. You do such an incredible disservice to a family and an individual when you live your life as if there is no God. From this essential point of deception, my entire worldview gets skewed and my life misses the God-given purpose for which I was made – To love and enjoy a good God forever.

    Love…true love…

  26. aforcier

    I am not really concern about you firing missiles into the atheists camps. (I am very comfortable in my skin)

    What i am more concern about is when little Joey junior goes to school and meets little Albert jr, or the tofu jr, or little Mary sunnyskeptic jr… Joey jr will say … your dad is not a good father.

    to which the little jrs will reply… Who, little Joey, told you that my dad is a bad person?

    Little Joey’s empowered by the – truth – will reply: “God”.

    And the great human divide will widen.

    http://www.ANaturalPhilosophy.com

  27. Point well taken. Joey Jr. will have a definite worldview presented. But included in that worldview is the beauty of God in all people.

    Joey Jr. will love human beings, as human-beings, but he will also have deeper answers to life’s questions offered in a loving environment. And the utter foolishness of atheism will be clearly explained, while the joy of knowing an atheist will also be valued.

    The great human divide will narrow.

  28. The Tofu

    “Anyway. This is not just about “atheist father bashing” at all.”

    Except that you suggest that fathers of atheists are neglectful… ok…

    “Raising a child as an atheist is absurd.”

    Children should be taught to be inquisitive and interested in the world around them. Teaching kids dogmatic beliefs they are not allowed to question is hardly a good system.

    “You’ve espoused a worldview that you can’t live by and if you’re honest, can’t even teach to your children with confidence.”

    Atheism is not the bleak, pointless existence you still seem to think it is, and repeating over and over that it’s horrible doesn’t make it so. Come up with something new, please. This is getting tiring.

    “Now then, there are tons of people who you could talk to, and if they are honest – and are not concerned about proving me wrong – then they will tell you, “Yes, my father-son relationship sustained a wound.””

    And these people could be from any background, not necessarily atheist.

    “Deadbeat fathers have done more for the cause of atheism than anyother thing you could name.”

    Prove it.

  29. aforcier

    thank you, Joey, for your answer.

    about the great divide:

    Have you ever read Walt Whitman’s “When I heard the learn’d astronomer” ?

    When I heard the learn’d astronomer,
    When the proofs, the charts and diagram, to add, divide, and mesure them,
    When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured with much applause in the lecture room,
    How soon unaccountasble I became tired and sick,
    Till rising and gliding out I wander off by myself,
    In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,
    Look’d up in perfect silence at the stars.

    http://www.ANaturalPhilosophy.com

  30. Define “pretty good”.

    Fine. Dandy. Healthy. Close. If you’re trying to get into a battle semantics then you better think again.

    Raising a child as an atheist is absurd.

    Really? I seem to be doing a pretty good job at it so far.

    My father did the same the way as well; he was a supportive, educational man who did his very best for his family. He was a pillar of the community, being involved in various charitable organisations that helped many people.
    You have some nerve (and no evidence) trying to label the fantastic job he did as a father as ‘absurd’.

    You strip away an essential life core. Why in the world would you want to raise a child as an atheist?

    Promoting the cherishing of life? Honour? To make the most out of your life and respecting the lives of others? To gaze upon the universe and wonder at the processes that keep it ticking over? Promoting rational and critical thinking skills?
    Why wouldn’t you want to raise an Atheist?

    I know it worked out pretty well for me.

    You’ve espoused a worldview that you can’t live by and if you’re honest, can’t even teach to your children with confidence.

    Your logic is faulty to say the least. According to the same exact logic you’re using, I can not claim with confidence that Leprechauns don’t exist, that Zeus does not exist, that the Flying Spaghetti Monsters does not exist.
    Absurd.

    But when you grow up with a misdirected father, your ideas about authority in general and God in particular are skewed from an early age.

    I hope by ‘misdirected’ you’re not referring to Atheist fathers. My ideas about authority are pretty sound and I certainly respect it; I impart that respect not into the child I am helping to raise but also those children I teach as part of my career.

    This article is about not skewing the person of God, but presenting Him well to a family who so desperately need the answers to life’s deeper questions that only God can provide.

    Really? Like what sort of questions, exactly? I can not think of one that only god can provide.
    Of course, your position fails logically on the grounds that just because an answer (well, an assumption really) has been reached it does not make it true. To make something true requires evidence.

    Deadbeat fathers have done more for the cause of atheism than any other thing you could name.

    You make this claim and yet have provided no evidence for it. I suggest you do so else stop this erroneous line of argument else you’re doing nothing but making yourself look silly.

    Atheism is focused on here because it is the ultimate lie.

    Really? Prove it.

    Oh. Wait. You can’t.

    All you seem capable of doing is making extremely broad statements without backing them up with any sort of evidence or proof. And that is simply not good enough.

  31. Corrine

    “Listen, I am not about lobbing ideological bombs into the atheistic camp and watching the explosion as some suggest I am doing.”

    –followed by:

    “Raising a child as an atheist is absurd. You strip away an essential life core. Why in the world would you want to raise a child as an atheist? And/or live in a way that provokes atheism.”

    Sounds to me like lobbing bombs is exactly what you’re trying to do.

  32. pjohanna

    I love how Christians state homosexuals are correlated to a lack of either love of the opposite sex parent or abuse by that parent. This is the first time I hear this theory. Is it possible that some of us think for ourselves and don’t need someone to be telling us how life should be lived? Is it possible that the actions of Christians have pushed some from losing faith?

  33. Yes. It’s possible. Believe me, I know. I even post on the need for confession and repentance on this…
    https://spiritualquestions.wordpress.com/2008/10/09/my-apology-will-you-forgive-me/

    I have studied too much not to recognize the importance of the father relationship. It is a powerful role in any childs life.

  34. Timothy Peck:

    Having parents who abandoned us, abused us, or left us when we were very young can have a profound effect on our lives. Recently I ran across a fascinating book by a professor of psychology from New York University named Dr. Paul Vitz. Dr. Vitz’s book “Faith of the Fatherless” looks at the psychology of atheism. Vitz looks at the lives of 27 famous atheists throughout history, and he finds that all of these atheists came from homes where their father died, abandoned them, or was abusive during their early childhood.

    For example, perhaps the most famous atheist in history was Friedrich Neitzsche, who in the late 19th century proclaimed that God was dead (20). What many people don’t know is that Neitzsche’s father was a Lutheran pastor who died when Neitzsche was just five years old (Vitz 21). David Hume is another famous atheist, and Hume’s father died when he was just two years old (25-26). Bertrand Russell, the author of the 1957 book Why I’m Not a Christian, lost his father when he was just four years old (Vitz 26-27). The French atheist Jean-Paul Sartre lost his dad when he was just fifteen months old (Vitz 28). The father of atheist Thomas Hobbes was a compulsive gambler who abandoned his family when Thomas was very young (Vitz 34-35). Sigmund Freud’s dad Jacob Freud was unable to hold down a job and provide for his family, and according to Sigmund his dad molested several of Sigmund’s siblings (Vitz 47-48).

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